Safety Corner

By Linda "Slim" Torrens, Mooney Caravan Safety Officer 
Slim spent her first 20 flying years in the United States Air Force and piloted C-9A air evac, KC-10A tanker, and C-130 airlift missions worldwide. She has over 5,000 flight hours which includes 500 Mooney hours in three privately owned M20E and M20F aircraft. She is an active CFII and is currently relocating from the Mid Atlantic Region to the Rocky Mountains.  As Safety Officer, Slim hopes to improve safety awareness as well as recruit regional safety officers and have safety representation at all Mooney Caravan training events -- the ultimate goal being that all Mooney Caravan events continue to be accident and incident free.

Following the Leader. By Linda "Slim" Torrens

posted Feb 24, 2020, 9:37 AM by Maria Neboschick


In formation flying, there are leaders and there are followers. Both roles are equally important, but the distinctions are not as clear as just being labeled leader or follower, lead or wingman.  All formation flights have a  designated Lead. The more complex the mission, the higher the possibility of there also being designated both a Mission Commander and a Deputy Lead. In our Oshkosh Caravan, Mooney Lead serves as Lead, performing many Mission Commander duties, while #2 is the recognized Deputy Lead. Both positions are crucial to the safety of the flight. In smaller formations — for example, ones found at training clinics, Mission Commander and Deputy Lead might be informal positions within each training sortie.

"One of the tests of leadership is the ability to recognize a problem before it becomes an emergency." --Arnold Glasow
Obviously, the role of Lead is to lead. Lead must think well ahead of the formation and his own plane. If the formation is 2 or even 5 miles long, he must plan turns, commands, clearances, and think through contingencies so that every airplane in the formation experiences the safest possible flight. Lead must be aware of surrounding traffic, decipher radio calls, incorporate ADS-B and weather data into in-flight planning, know where the position of the formation is within the planned flight maneuver area, and be ready to respond to changing conditions in the maneuver area and at the destination airport. In addition, Lead must be intimately familiar with emergency procedures so that he is ready, nearly instantaneously so, to call a breakout or a knock it off or a formation abort or even to direct a formation rejoin should the need arise. A good Lead is in reality, flying not just his airplane, but is along for the ride in each of his followers’ aircraft. Obviously, the larger the formation, the more difficult it is to achieve complete situational awareness. That is why the position of Mooney Caravan Lead is so carefully chosen, not only for pilotage skills and past Caravan experience, but also for his or her ability to quickly make difficult, possibly life-saving decisions under pressure. It’s a BIG job that looks relatively easy when things go smoothly.
“The most difficult instrument to play … is second fiddle.”  — Leonard Bernstein

Mooney Caravan Deputy Lead is known to be the Caravan Lead in-training. This person is also highly experienced and intimately briefed on the mission plan. Deputy Lead assists Lead as required, but is also ready, at a moment’s notice to take over as Lead. No daydreaming during the flight for Deputy Lead. Deputy Lead flies the airplane but is also along for the ride in Lead’s, so that if Lead aborts, has an aircraft malfunction, or becomes incapable of continuing the flight for any reason, the transition from Deputy to Lead can be conducted seamlessly with no impact to the safety of the formation. 
Behind that important first element in the Caravan are the follower elements—each comprised of an element lead and two wingmen. You might have noticed that within each element, #2’s are generally the more experienced of the element wingmen. This is done so that each #2 can be more comfortable stepping into the role of element lead as necessary. The position of wingman #2 definitely requires less forethought than flying as Caravan Deputy Lead since elements are essentially Caravan followers, but it’s a possible role change that should be considered, nevertheless. As always, it’s best to think about potential unexpected events before they happen.

"Followership, like leadership, is a role and not a destination."  — Michael McKinney
The job of the follower is to be a good, reliable and safe wingman. Followers must be familiar with the plan and be ready to adapt to changes in the briefed plan. Followers should not create stress for either formation Lead, their element lead, or following aircraft. This means flying in position and anticipating where your element will go next, knowing the plan and flying in the briefed position with no unnecessary chitchat on the radios. Especially important is instinctively knowing what to do should the unexpected occur. What will you do if you accidentally pull back your mixture lever instead of the throttle? (yes, this has happened!) What will you do should you need to perform a high-speed abort and you have aircraft on the roll behind you? What will you do if you lose sight of lead? What calls will you make? What’s the safest direction to turn your aircraft? Climb? Descend? I’ve flown in two training formations where some wingmen inadvertently encountered clouds and it becomes obvious at that point of the importance of each pilot having a good mental picture of where the other Mooneys are flying.
While a new wingman with few formation flights might be highly trusting of his Lead, as we build experience, wingmen can start to think like a Lead. The more mission planning accomplished, the better we can perform as wingman. If you are familiar with the assigned area, you might recognize that that lake in the distance is on the maneuver area boundary, and so you know that your Lead is probably going to soon command a formation turn. You might hear CTAF radio calls and know that a Cessna on base is likely to mean a delayed turn to final for the formation. Of course, the ability to have increased situational awareness is enhanced with experience and the more formation flying you do, the better your situational awareness will become.  
Our Caravan is fortunate because some of our members are going above and beyond in their formation training, and they are attending advanced training events, receiving FFI check rides and obtaining special formation qualifications. This level of expertise greatly adds to the professionalism and safety of our organization. Rather than being just a gaggle of Mooneys trying to land at Osh, we can fly as a highly trained, disciplined, and impressive formation group. If you are not involved in advanced training events, seek out those who are and pick their brains to learn more about what formation flying can entail. The goal is that every member of the formation is performing his or her role in the safest manner possible and every member is ready and capable of appropriate actions when the unexpected occurs. All for the desired end game:


Caravan 2019. By Linda "Slim" Torrens

posted Aug 20, 2019, 5:04 AM by Ashley and Maria Neboschick   [ updated Aug 20, 2019, 5:05 AM ]

The Recap.
As you all recall, we sat through the 2019 post-formation flight debrief and heard much praise for this year’s Caravan to Osh flight.  And in my four years, it was certainly the best and least stressful of any of the Oshkosh formation flights.  Certainly, very impressive for a group of 62 aircraft.

Last Year.  What I mainly recall about last year – 2018 – was the decisive crosswind on takeoff out of MSN.  Leads had been taught to visually follow preceding elements.  The crosswind, which made aircraft crab into the wind immediately after takeoff, resulted in elements lifting off and flying left of the runway to get visually behind the preceding elements.  For the first few elements it was only a small correction off runway heading, but by the time we got to India element (my element), it appeared that the preceding aircraft were flying towards the tower immediately after liftoff in order to get behind their preceding element, and I can only imagine what it looked like from M-element’s perspective or from R-element’s view. That didn’t happen this year. This year, we were told (repeatedly!) to fly the magenta line and that seemed to work.  Of course, there was no major crosswind on takeoff, but for the most part, flying the line worked like a charm.

Decision Making.  Of my four years with the Caravan, all four have coincidentally ended up with an extra night in Madison.  What is it about July weekend weather in Wisconsin?  This year was different however, because rather than being on the hook all day long hanging around on a humid and should-be-condemned South Ramp, the call was made early to delay.  Perhaps the conditions made it more obvious this year that weather would not cooperate, but the early decision sure made for a more relaxing “extra” day in Madison…and it matters not whether we as a group are pre-positioned a day early at Oshkosh or are spending an extra night in Madison. It’s all part of the Caravan experience.
Much of the rest of the flight went exactly as planned. Engine start and taxi were inordinately long as we waited for taxi clearance, and we made minor errors, wake turbulence was encountered, possible spurious radio calls were made, but overall, it was another great arrival for the Mooney Caravan. Thank you to each aircraft commander and passenger who made the entire experience highly enjoyable.

The Future. Thus, now begins the long formation training season. Several clinics and planned get-togethers will soon be posted on the Caravan Google Group and on the Caravan website.  Attend additional clinics if you can; flying formation once or twice a year might be enough to keep you safe enough for the flight to Osh, but your skills probably won’t improve. Stay in the books – read the Caravan formation guide (don’t forget to cover the ‘Abnormals’ section), watch formation videos on YouTube, refresh your knowledge of formation procedures, and practice. If you decide to practice on your own, please practice the fundamentals you have learned at clinics.  
For those that want to go to the next higher level, several clinics include Advanced Maneuvers Training (advertised in the Mooney Google Group).  While you can and should read about these maneuvers in the Mooney Formation Guide on the Caravan website, our document mostly mirrors what is required in other professional formation organizations (FFI and FAST). On this page,, you can see the Mooney Formation Supplement as well as poke around in the FFI formation documents.  It’s all good knowledge and the more you know (even if you aren’t going to an Advanced Clinic), well, the smarter you get.

Fly Safe and Best Regards,

Gotta Love those Oshkosh Departures!

Get Your Head in the Game. by Linda "Slim" Torrens

posted Jul 11, 2019, 10:35 AM by Ashley and Maria Neboschick


Have you ever started the engine only to realize the chocks are still in?  Yep, I’ve checked that box.  Ever tried to start the engine with the towbar still attached? Check. Ever taken off only to have the door pop open due to improper latching or inadequate pax brief? Check and check. For 20 years, my husband’s mantra as he left to go fly was always, “headset helmet pubs and gloves, flashlight wallet I’ve got all of it…” because at one time or another, he’d left for a trip and forgotten one of those items. For most pilots, the mental checking off starts from the time they leave the house.  Approaching the airplane, the pilot looks at the overall picture, takes in the windsock and casually observes other traffic. The pilot is collecting data. The walkaround is completed, usually in the same exact manner. The bags are loaded, weight and balance completed, etc… all done usually in the same manner – by rote habit and by practice. 

When routines are broken, things sometimes go wrong.  I had to shut down the engine and crawl over my mother-in-law to remove my Mooney chocks. My homemade towbar removed itself from the airplane after the big spinny thing knocked it out of the way. Both embarrassing incidents, and both the result of something breaking the habit patterns.  I’d like to blame my errors on other people – the student asking an inappropriate question at the wrong time or another pilot trying to “help” me with towing -- but ultimately, as you know, it’s the pilot-in-command who takes full responsibility for the safety of flight.


In the next few days, our aircraft habit patterns will be tested.  Unless you are a formation regular, things are going to be different as you head into and out of Madison.  The horn will blow – and it will be time to turn the ignition key and everyone will know if you delay engine start. Hopefully, everything you’ve meant to do by engine start time has been safely completed. Did you check the fuel? latch the baggage door? tighten that little oil knobby? And, ah, where did you set that FAA notam and the GAC parking sign?

On this mission, you’ll want to be ahead of the aircraft at all times. That means, be at the briefing early and ready to actively listen. Anticipate a wait for the bus, a line at the bathroom and at the FBO. Have fuel paid for, preflight completed, passengers briefed, and cockpit nest built well before engine start time. No rushing around trying to catch up.   


A great way to alleviate the stress upon your habit patterns is through the accumulation of knowledge…which, thankfully, is easily done.  But it needs to be done now – this week, while sitting at home and relaxed.  At pilot training, we called it chair flying. You think through the timeline and visualize how you’re going to accomplish every bit of your part of the mission.  You’ll arrive at Madison having read the Caravan formation guide, you’ll have looked at Sled’s Madison brief several times, and you’ll know what’s going to happen and when to expect it.  You’ve thought through setting up the GPS, ADSB and radios, know where you’re going load stuff, and what you’re going to do if something outside the norm happens. If you have to abort, you’ll instinctively remember to call the abort so followers will know.  If you need to break out, you lose sight of lead, or you need to call traffic, you’ll know what to say on the radio and what to do with your aircraft, because you’ve thought through these scenarios.  

There will be a lot of pressure at Madison to do things on time and correctly, and errors (and there will be errors!) will be noted in the debrief as a learning tool. Try not to make any errors, but of course, if you do, fess up, help others to learn from mistakes, and enjoy the short ride and great coming days at Oshkosh as part of the best mass arrival group there is!

Your assignment: Safety Officer. by Linda "Slim" Torrens

posted Jan 25, 2019, 9:21 PM by Maria Neboschick   [ updated Feb 2, 2019, 10:29 AM ]

        The snow is still on the ground here in Colorado, but it's already time to start thinking about this year's Mooney Caravan flying and formation training events.  Our first serious training event of 2019 is next weekend, with many more opportunities to follow:  
Jan 31-Feb 4 Yuma, AZ
Feb 22-24 B2O Phoenix, AZ
Mar 16-17 B2O McClellan, CA
Apr 25-28 B2O McClellan, CA
Mar 29-31 B2O Lake City, FL
Apr 5-7 San Marcos, TX
May 2-5 B2O St Joseph, MO
May 3-5 Newton, KS
May 17-19 B2O Dennison, TX
May 31-Jun 2 Bemidji, MN
Jun TBD Chino, CA
Jun 14-16 Hickory, NC
Jun 20-23 B2O Bremerton, WA
*Check the Mooney Caravan Training page for training details.

        As our organization grows (did you notice two new patches -- Northern Lights and Pacific/Mountain squadrons have been added– on our Mooney Caravan website?), it is incumbent upon all of us to ensure that every flight training event is safely accomplished.  Safety cannot just be the event director's job, because that person is, after all, riddled with details...from the hotel to the briefings, to the flight assignments, to the transportation. As they say in many successful organizations: "Everyone is a safety officer." Everyone has an obligation to look out for themselves AND others as we participate in this high-risk activity of formation flight.

        Formation flight doesn't have to be dangerous. Airplanes have been successfully flown in close proximity since the dawn of flight. In fact, during WWII, pilots who were barely past their teen years were sent to fly in massive formations with only a few hundred hours under their belts. The way to overcome the inherent dangers of formation flight is by knowing our stuff, briefing the heck out of each flight so we know WHAT to expect and WHAT to do if something goes wrong, and speaking up if something makes us uncomfortable. Even the least experienced formation pilot should speak up if feeling a bit unsure of a maneuver, or a briefing item, or even a taxi plan.  This is particularly important since leaders have a tendency to get stuck in the rut of ‘this is the way we planned it’ and ‘this is the way it's been done before’. Having a question pop up from formation members often results in additional thought about a procedure. All good for all of us.

        I was really proud of our organization last year during the 2018 Mooney Caravan.  The desire to succumb to pressures -- both internal and external -- to get in the air and get it on the ground at Oshkosh were overcome by the fine group that is our  Mooney Caravan leadership.  Although highly frustrating, the extra night in Madison resulted in a safe VFR arrival into Oshkosh -- no bomb bursts or inadvertent IMC for our organization and a bonanza of lessons learned for all.1   As you fly into Madison this year, consider that the Caravan experience is just experience...and whether our group is over-nighting an extra night at Madison or we're on the ground at Oshkosh by Saturday morning, it doesn't matter. It's all part of the great Mooney Caravan experience. 

Watch for Oshkosh Arrival Changes. They are a'Coming!

        This was my third year in the Mooney Caravan and each of the 3 years, there have been frustrating weather impacts at both Madison and Oshkosh. This last year, arrivals across the board were severely impacted by Saturday's weather. You may have read about Fisk arrivals being delayed in holding by 2, 3, or even 4 hours (4 hours!) with a continuous ATC radio stream of: 

"We are oversaturated. Everyone approaching Fisk, turn LEFT and enter a hold. If you are not at Ripon, do not come to Ripon. Enter a hold and come back with a half-mile separation. Suggest diverting if you are low on fuel." 2  

        Thus, last year especially, it was good to arrive at Oshkosh in formation on a track not overlaying the very crowded Fisk arrival groundtrack

My own personal iPad screenshot.  We Mooneys are on the purple line.  And Yes, I am in the blue helicopter (kids…geez!)

“By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.” -- Benjamin Franklin

        EAA has already announced that they do not wish for the 2018 arrival experience to be repeated.3  Changes are a'coming and we as Mooney pilots need to be prepared. This year, EAA is considering adding arrival routes into Oshkosh. So instead of just looking for stray aircraft to the left of our planned Caravan arrival route, there might be aircraft, left, right, over or even straight ahead. Leads, 2s, and 3s all need to be conversant with Oshkosh Fisk procedures because you never know when you might be single-shipping it in for some reason or another. Changes to the arrival notam for other aircraft might impact our operations in unforeseen ways, and so, it would be a great idea for every pilot to seriously consider "what if" scenarios. And that includes knowing how and when to call knock it off, or how to safely break out, and what you will personally do with your flight controls and your mic in the event of an unplanned go around. 
        Last year, the EAA held our parking for us. A fantastic gesture which greatly relieved the stress of the delay at Madison. Possibly this will be the case in 2019 and this might mean that single Mooney aircraft can/will join our designated parking area. This gives us arrival flexibility but also introduces unknowns. I personally think this is a good thing (brings more of us Mooneys together), but could also potentially result in over-saturation of our designated parking area. 

        Some of our squadrons practice formation more than others. Although the requirement is to attend one annual clinic, clearly those that practice only once per year are at a disadvantage when it comes to remembering every formation procedure, monitoring the dual radio frequencies, looking for traffic, all the while trying not to hit Lead.  However, that being said, the pilot that chair-flies will be more proficient than the one that shows up at Madison just ready to get the party started (after attending a single clinic).  So, read the manual, talk formation with your Mooney buddies, and watch YouTube formation videos (google "YouTube Mooney Formation" and you'll find enough material to entertain yourself for hours).  

        As one of our own says about flying to Oshkosh -- formations to Oshkosh are:  “…pilots flying the best general aviation airplane camping together in friendship and camaraderie. The formation arrival is the means of accomplishment….mass formation arrivals bring connection and camaraderie.” 4    

Fly safe and see you in the skies soon!

--Linda "Slim" Torrens

1Interesting info on mass arrivals as well as a link to the Bonanza 2018 experience. Weather Wreaks Havoc on Oshkosh Mass Arrivals: Record-breaking Bonanza group was forced to scatter due to unexpected IFR conditions at Wittman Regional Airport. By Pia Bergqvist July 23, 2018.
2Why it Took us 3 Days to Fly to Oshkosh. By Tori Williams. Posted on August 1, 2018.  and an interesting view of how singles view the Fisk and type club mass arrivals. Welcome to Oshkosh. Just Kidding: Turn Left. Posted by Just Plane Silly. Published on Jul 28, 2018,
3EAA announcement of proposed notam changes. AirVenture Arrival Procedure Changes Recommended to FAA. Published November 15, 2018. 
4Article on mass arrival history.  Flying the Diamond Lane: Mass Formation Arrivals at Osh bring Connection and Camaraderie. By Jolie Lucas. Published on August 8, 2016.

"Mooney Bravo Lead, converging traffic, co-altitude, 10 o'clock" by Linda "Slim" Torrens

posted May 22, 2018, 9:25 AM by Ashley and Maria Neboschick   [ updated Jan 27, 2019, 7:12 AM by Maria Neboschick ]

"Lead, you're on fire."  This is the phrase that Lead doesn't want to hear, and yet simultaneously, it is the only radio call expected from Lead's wingmen.  Most with a military or previous formation experience background will recognize those words as direction from Lead that wingmen do not chatter on the radios unless ... Lead is on fire.  I'm a relative newbie with Mooney Caravan to EAA Airventure at Oshkosh, having only done it twice, but I have been to a handful of regional formation training events.  In our Mooney Caravan community, radio discipline is always briefed as a formation weak item.

The problem is that Mooney wingmen are first and foremost pilots, generally used to being in command, used to making their own decisions, and boy, do we love to talk!  Converting oneself over to a follower mentality is challenging.  Really challenging.  But that's the wingman's job: to follow Lead.  Wings must focus 100% of attention on not hitting Lead—a job done best if done relatively silently. 

Radio silence in the Caravan is important because we are a horrendously large grouping of aircraft.  With over 50 Mooneys and 100 radios and pilots and copilot passengers and back seaters and ATC and other non-Mooney aircraft approaching Oshkosh on frequency, it takes only a few extraneous calls before someone in the formation suffers cognitive overload -- and no one wants the cognitive overloaded pilot to be in the airplane flying next to them.

This problem is not unique to Mooney formators. The National Interagency Fire Center cites excessive radio chatter as a major causal factor in firefighter casualty figures. Incident commanders struggle with the desire to give everyone a radio in case of emergency or to keep the radios close hold so that the frequencies don't get jammed up.  We Mooneys all have radios...and most (if not all of us) two radios.  So, we're listening on ATC, listening on Mooney common frequency, chatting with our passengers, AND trying to follow Lead or the previous element. Wingmen are told to stay in position (don't hit lead!) and use the radio only for safety issues. But what constitutes a safety issue?  Converging traffic, co-altitude qualifies as radio-call worthy (but please specify who you are calling traffic to, since our Mooney Caravan formation is often 4 to 6 miles long!), but an aircraft in the distance might not. An abort would qualify. Definitely, a structural or other issue with another aircraft in your element.  These are "urgent" calls.  Necessary radio calls are those made by formation lead and the element leads. Unnecessary radio calls constitute just about everything else.  

All radio calls, even the "urgent" ones, ought to follow a pre-arranged sequence.  In much the same way that you make calls at an uncontrolled field -- station name, your identifier, your message, station name -- if a radio call comes in an expected format, it will be easier to understand and digest. This is why ATC calls are heavily scripted and why our formation guide tells us how to answer frequency changes. Radio calls that follow a cadence -- when things are said in an expected sequence -- add to situational awareness for all. And when placed in a stressful situation, comprehension matters. 

Last year, during a large formation takeoff, one member of our group experienced an abort. Some aircraft were airborne, some were on takeoff roll, some were still sitting on the runway.  Think a little bit about this scenario. Without being able to look behind him, Lead couldn't tell how many airborne Mooneys he had. Aircraft sitting on the runway, unless they were next up, couldn't see what had caused the abort. ATC wasn't sure what to make of the situation and they were now trying to control Mooneys in the air, a Mooney taxiing off the runway, and Mooneys on the runway but already in receipt of takeoff clearance. Within moments, the radios became heavily congested greatly adding to the confusion. People were talking on Mooney common frequency, ATC was demanding answers on tower frequency, and Lead was trying to direct the formation for airborne aircraft as well as ground aircraft. Radio discipline is important. 

Radio discipline is a skill that should be practiced so that when a situation arises that absolutely requires it, we are ready. That's not to say that followers (aka, wingmen and element leads) should not speak up. If something makes you uncomfortable, you need to say something.  If it's an immediate safety situation, then that call should be made ASAP -- on the radio.  Anyone can always call a “knock it off.”  But make these calls as per SOP, and as briefed. Worse than no call is a confusing, stress-creating call that just alarms everyone without communicating information or enhancing situational awareness. 

If you don't understand something in the briefing, you need to speak up -- preferably in the briefing. If you see an unsafe situation developing, you need to bring it to the attention of others. We're all in this together. We ought to study and know how to make radio calls while in formation, but perhaps equally important, we need to know how and when NOT to say it on the radio so that our use of the radios will enhance safety rather than detract from it.  The more we practice, the safer we become.

Too much radio chatter leads to pilot overload.

Crew Resource Management by Linda "Slim" Torrens

posted May 22, 2018, 9:19 AM by Ashley and Maria Neboschick   [ updated Jan 27, 2019, 7:12 AM by Maria Neboschick ]

Crew Resource Management (CRM), aka Cockpit Resource Management (please stifle your yawns!), has been around aviation training circles since the 1970s.  The goal of CRM training is to enhance communication and teamwork in order to make flying a more safer endeavor.  As with most things in aviation, the concept and the need for training grew out of the lessons learned of several fatal accidents.

As Mooney Formaters, we don't have "crews" per se, but we do have resources that can be put to good use to minimize the chance of accidents or incidents. Use of resources beyond those of just the pilot in command can enhance situational awareness, reduce the stress of both pilot and passengers, help the pilot to avoid becoming saturated during intense moments, and of course, enhance safety for all involved.

The main principles of CRM involve using all resources available to you as the pilot. Additional resources for Mooney Caravan pilots include passengers, formation partners, and ATC.  While the pilot in command is the final authority, he should welcome safety inputs from others both inside and outside the airplane. However, passengers during formation flight should be carefully briefed as experience and comfort levels with formation flight will vary greatly. Depending on their competency and familiarity with formation and flying in general, the passenger should feel comfortable telling the pilot when he observes something that just doesn't feel right. The pilot might explain when and how feedback ought to be relayed to the pilot -- the formation mantra "only call lead if he's on fire" might not be appropriate guidance for the passenger in your airplane.  On the other hand, the passenger must understand the intense concentration required during formation flight and know that idle conversation at inappropriate moments (that would include the entire formation flight!) could lead to disastrous results.  It's definitely a fine balance and one that you, as the pilot will have to broach with your passenger(s).  Many an accident has resulted from 'copilots' too afraid to speak up with observed safety concerns and pilots too pigheaded to hear and consider the implications of "crew" inputs.  While Mooney pilots are certainly not pigheaded, the concentration required during formation flight might lead one to ignore inputs unless they've thought about it beforehand.

And then there are the other types of passengers…ones that can be more of a hindrance than a help and these types generally include those under four feet tall.  In my aircraft, these creatures sit in the back and I can isolate their headsets so that I don't have to listen to their constant chatter.  But their presence can still be useful.  They can watch for other airplanes, check the progress of rejoining wingmen and depending upon their experience levels, alert the pilot or front passenger via a simple tap on the shoulder when something doesn't seem right.

Other formation aircraft certainly qualify as valuable resources.  When you pull onto the runway or are flying in close fingertip, observe and then really observe lead's aircraft.  If something doesn't look right, speak up….this might include checking other aircraft before takeoff for open doors or hanging items (seatbelt out the door?).  And it might include the incorrect position of gear or flaps.  In any case, wingmen are in a great position to back up lead simply because they are constantly observing him.  We like to keep radio chatter to an absolute minimum, but if you observe a safety concern, its best to speak up.

Finally, ATC can serve as a resource for formation flyers.  Lead is generally the only aircraft talking to ATC, but your own situational awareness is greatly improved if you can follow along with ATC instructions.  And if you do not understand a vital communication from ATC (such as cleared to land, for example), it might be worth a quick query to lead.  All this being said, constant chatter on the radio detracts from formation safety and so, strive to become experienced enough to handle formation position as well as monitoring of the outside world. 

Best wishes and happy CRM on your next flight!

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